Candi Jago

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Location

Located at Tumpang, East of Malang. [map reference: 1607-443 Tumpang 46:00 00.15]. 

Leave Malang via Jl. Tumenggung Suryo headed East continue along Sunandar Priyo Sudarmo which connects to Jl. Raya Wendit. Take this road straight to Tumpang. Note its name changes on the way: Jl. Raya Pakis, JR Sukoanyar Dempul (here you see the entrance gate to Tumpang: 'masuk kota Tumpang'), JR Jeru, JR Malang Suko, JR Kauman. After this last name change, continue another 200m and Candi Jago is on the East side. 

Origins

Funerary monument to King Wishnuwardhana (1249-1268) of Singasari, called (candi) Jajaghu in the Nagarakertagama (canto 37). 

Description of architecture

The temple consists a single building which has three terraces on top of which rests the main temple body.  The temple opening faces North West (towards the region of the dead). The two lower terraces extend far to the West, from where two staircases on the North and South end lead up to the next level. The central temple building has an inner cella that housed the three principal statues, and possibly others of bronze. The three closed outer walls of the building have niches that would have contained statues. 

Description of reliefs

The reliefs should be read counter clockwise. Kinney (2003) has a detailed description of the reliefs.

Buddhist

  • Kunjarakarna - lower terrace

  • Tantri stories - lower terrace

Hindu

  • Parthayajina - middle terrace

  • Arjunawiwaha - middle terrace

  • Kresnayana - temple body

Description of statues

Amoghapasa Lokesvara is the central diety venerated at Candi Jago. Amoghapasa L is the Tantric Buddhist form of boddhisatwa Avalokitshwara, here shown with 8 arms. The sculpture of this diety is still on site. It was flanked by loose-standing sculptures of his four attendants, all of which are in the National Museum in Jakarta.Sudhana-kumara and Cyamatara are slightly larger have have lotus pedestals. The pair of Bhrekuti and Hayagriwa have no pedestals and are slightly smaller. It is not certain how they would have been placed. Logically the five form a unity and would have been in one chamber. Krom supports this view and places less store on the fact that the four tara statues are not uniform in size and execution. Brandes suggested that Amoghapasa was flanked on the right and left by Sudhana-kumara and Syamatara. The outer niches would have contained the statues of Hayagriwa, Bhrekuti but also another one of which remains were still found on site. This fifth one could have been Ekajati. Moens suggests this in TBG 59, 1921 p 559-61.

Further statues have been found, four of which are in the possession of the National Museum in Jakarta, and one of which (Mamaki) is in the British Museum.  These statues are of two Dhyanibuddha Akshobhya and Ratnasambhawa, and of three of their companions (Mamaki, Pandurawasini and Locana). No trace has been found of statues of the three missing Dhyani buddha (Amoghasiddha, Amithaba, Vairocana) and of those of the two <missing> spouses (Vajradatawiswari and Ayratara (aka Syamatara). See also: Iconography.

Rediscovery and restoration

This temple was never truly lost. The first description is that of Raffles (1815), the inscription on the statues was deciphered by Friederich in 1854 and Brumond provided the first detailed descriptions in 1855 and 1863. The most detailed description is that of Brandes (1904) and in the following decennia it was Van Stein Callenfels who completed the identification of the reliefs.

The main temple was restored between 1976 - 1980. The original site was larger as shown by remnants of gates elsewhere in the compound.

Mounted: 19-Jan-06 Last edited: 7-Feb-10

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